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Recommended Inclusions in VoLTE IR.92/94 and the IMS standards to achieve GSM-like ubiquity

Posted by Aayush Bhatnagar on December 13, 2014


The industry has seen and tracked how the VoLTE standards have been evolving over time.

GSMA IR.92 – IMS Profile for Voice and SMS, has undergone several revisions. On the same lines IR.94 has been published for video calling.

However, if we compare mobile telephony available today – with the IMS and VoLTE standards – some key gaps remain in the IR.92 guidelines, which in my opinion should be included in the GSMA standards to maintain backwards compatibility for VoLTE deployments.

All open market VoLTE device networks, and IMS vendors follow IR.92 and IR.94 as the golden standard for their implementation, and hence this alignment is important.

Some of the key features, which are “candidates” for inclusion are mentioned below. Some of these have 3GPP references, while others exist in some form or the other in exiting 2G/3G networks which are live today.

In the absence of “golden” guidelines for these issues, getting a GSM-equivalent ubiquitous and mature standards based implementation for VoLTE becomes a challenge –

1. Support for USSD over IMS should be endorsed by IR.92

The USSD standards for IMS have finally been frozen and are available in 3GPP TS 24.390 since Release-11, which happened in Q3 2012.

In some countries, USSD is a central medium to enable Value added Services – which actually contribute to whatever is left in Voice and SMS revenues for the operator.

USSD is also a good medium to integrate customer self care applications directly with back-end content based application servers – for example, we may want the customer to preview and choose a ring back tone through an android application.

On Android OS, it is trivial to dial out a USSD request from an application by using the following lines of code:

String hashString = Uri.encode(“#”);
String shortCode = “*” + hashString + “131” +hashString;
startActivityForResult(new Intent(“android.intent.action.CALL”, Uri.parse(“tel:” + ussd)), 1);

Similarly, incoming USSD responses can be intercepted easily.

However, in order to enable this functionality on a large scale on VoLTE handsets – IR.92 has to endorse the 3GPP specification and provide clear guidelines for implementation at the device side as well as at the network side.

2. Over the Air Function (OTAF) – messages tunneled via SMS and USSD.

OTAF is required for remote provisioning of SIM card information. The secure packet structure of communicating these configurations is defined by 3GPP in TS 31.115.

IR.92 should endorse this specification and include the related call flows in the VoLTE implementation guidelines specification.

The OTAF function has an important role to play in the OSS activation processes, when the customer inserts the SIM card in the handset.

Most OTAF servers connect to the IMS network (IPSMGW) as an ESME function over SMPP. Alternatively, they connect to a USSD gateway if the USSD termination option has to be exercised.

3. Complete SMS over IMS call flows (Ref: 3GPP, IR.92 and GSMA Implementation Guidelines)

The GSMA implementation guidelines as well as the 3GPP specifications do not provide end to end and complete call flows for SMS over IMS, covering all the scenarios.

Only  part call flows are explained where there is no clarity on whether the call flow is depicting IMS to IMS SMS termination or whether one of the SMS legs is from the legacy network (circuit switched).

Moreover, important call flows pertaining to international breakout of SMS messages, SMS initiation/termination when the customer is roaming in UTRAN and GERAN networks are missing.

Clarity on the interconnection of the IPSMGW with ESMEs over SMPP are not mentioned in TS 24.341, and are side-stepped in both IR.92 and the GSMA VoLTE implementation guidelines. As a result, all ESME related services which ride on SMPP are missing in the context of VoLTE.

These details should be clarified and detailed out in subsequent releases of the standards hopefully with clear call flows.

In the interim, vendors are forced to fall back to extrapolating existing 2G architectural details for SMS provided by earlier releases in 3GPP.

4. Support for STAR Code based dialing and detailed guidelines

Star code dialing has been available since GSM. Star codes can be used for activation and de-activation of supplementary services.

The MMTEL standards described in TS 24.173 and its downstream standards for IMS and VoLTE do not standardize or provide any guidelines on the usage of star codes.

This is very important from the perspective of  VoLTE devices vendors as well.

The device vendor has to decide which call flow to invoke based on the user input from the screen (whether to send an INVITE with the star code, or whether to send a standard XCAP request to an Aggregation Proxy server via HTTP)

Star code dialing can also be used for vertical services such as televoting and for other purposes.

This gap needs to be addressed in 3GPP and then ideally endorsed by IR.92. Alternatively, IR.92 can publish guidelines based on the SIP-AS models provided in TS 23.218 and allow device vendors to use star code dialing in VoLTE handsets as a configurable option controlled by OMA-DM.

5. Introducing (IN-like) and Interconnecting with (Existing IN) Toll free services for VoLTE/IMS

The 3GPP IMS architecture defines the IM-SSF (IP Multimedia Service Switching Function), as an entity which interconnects existing 2G/3G IN services with the IMS core network. TS 23.218 defines the IM-SSF formally in the standards.

Some of these services include – Televoting, 1800 toll free calling services, calling card services (for subsidized international calling for example), premium rate services (ITU-T E.155) and others.

For operators with existing 2G and 3G circuit switched core networks, it is possible to use the IM-SSF for bringing these IN services to the IMS architecture and then finally deliver them to VoLTE customers.

However, if there is a greenfield deployment of VoLTE, or a complete migration to LTE is required with no dependency on the IN platform, then this functionality of the IN architecture has to be standardized as part of IMS, and endorsed by IR.92.

3GPP may either directly standardize these applications – like they did for CRS and CAT (Customized alerting tones – also known as CRBT in India) – or 3GPP may work with OMA to define these service enablers formally and then endorse these standards.

In the absence of either of these, IR.92 can directly endorse TS 23.218 IM-SSF architecture for incumbent deployments, and the existing ITU-T recommendations for the benefit of greenfield operators, so that vendors can align to a least common denominator.

At the moment, this service agility is missing from the standards and the SIP Application server models have been defined and the rest is left to vendor innovation (please read this as vendor lock-in).

6. SMS Gateway and peering functionality (think of ESMEs)

Standards define E(SMEs) and their interconnection with SMSCs as part of the SMPP v3.4 and v5 specifications for GSM and UMTS.

However, as we move forward to IMS and VoLTE, the IPSMGW standards do not define any such entity, nor endorse the existing standards of SMPP.

Due to this gap, most of the SMS VAS services, SMS hubbing and SMS gateway services remain un-addressed. Vendors and operators have no choice but to fallback to legacy architectural choices or to support SMPP in the IPSGMW network element.

In markets such as India, SMS VAS services are a major cash cow despite OTTs, and these SMS messages are charged at a premium rate.

The SMPP interface should be included and the ESME functionality should be formally defined in TS 24.341 so that vendor implementations and VoLTE deployments are aligned.

7. Inclusion of MSRP and HTTP(S) for multimedia messaging in VoLTE IR.92/IR.94

It is a well known fact that MSRP and HTTP(S) based file transfer is addressed by GSMA in the RCSe specifications. However, it is required that these are also inlcluded in the scope of VoLTE.

Current MMS messages (even though MMS is dead), rides upon HTTP for file transfer.

With the advent of high speed LTE networks and VoLTE, HTTP and MSRP based file transfer can fuel many applications such as multimedia advertising applications, native support for multimedia messaging in VoLTE handsets (outside RCSe) – to give an integrated multimedia chat and SMS experience on a high speed data network.

Moreover, MSRP can also help in purchasing content from operator-owned content stores or streaming unicast content on-demand.

It is quite surprising that the MMS architecture has been left behind in the IMS standards and IR.92, as it can deliver a lot of value in the current context through innovative content based services.

8. Golden IMS configurations for VoLTE devices

At many occasions, there are configurations required in the VoLTE device which are in addition to the bare minimum list of parameters defined by 3GPP in the IMS Management Object specification.

Some typical examples include the following:

a. RTP keepalive timer values

b. RTCP policies

c. Impact of radio conditions on IMS registration

d. Guidelines for camping priorities between GERAN, UTRAN and E-UTRAN

e. Endorsement of SIP timers given in TS 24.229

f. UE registration re-try behavior endorsement as given in Section-5 of TS 24.229

g. UE star code dialing behavior and resolving conflict of triggering XCAP requests vis-a-vis SIP INVITE requests for dialed star codes by the user

The absence of these details cause implementation and interoperability complexities.

Hence, it is desirable if IR.92 provides an annexure detailing out UE guidelines and golden configuration options which can be followed across VoLTE UE implementations.


In conclusion, there needs to be a mechanism to include practical implementation pain-points and ensure backwards compatibility in the current IR.92 standards.

All the points listed above are widely deployed in current GERAN and UTRAN implementations with the circuit switched core network.

In the long run as more and more VoLTE devices come in the open market, and IMS deployments expand – these inclusions will help move towards attaining a GSM-like ubiquity for VoLTE.

Please feel free to add to this list or suggest more details/feedback.


Posted in 3gpp, 3GPP TS 24.229, 4G, DIAMETER, DIAMETER charging, IMS, IMS data, IMS procedures, IMS Release 11, IMS UE, ipsmgw, IR.92, IR.94, LTE, MMTEL, MSRP, network elements, RCS, supplementary services, telecom, USSD, USSI, VoLTE | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments »

An alternative for RF Drive Tests- NextGen Smartphone Apps that Integrate with OSS.

Posted by Aayush Bhatnagar on January 1, 2011


Usually in telecom operations, iterative RF coverage audits are common. This is facilitated by drive tests carried out by engineers and technicians who cover the length and breadth of the service areas by road.

These drive tests are an expensive business, both in terms of the costs involved and the human resources needed. Drive test equipment has to be carried physically in vehicles and these vehicles are continuously driven across the service areas of the operator. The results are then post processed manually to identify possible “pain points” for RF coverage.

This practice of drive tests still does not provide the operator with much information on how good/bad indoor coverage is for their customers.

Hence, despite spending a lot of money on drive tests, the biggest pain point of indoor coverage issues still remain unresolved.

With the advent of smart phones and mobile applications, there is a smarter way available for operators to get better RF audit results.

Proposed Solution:

The customer’s smart phone can be used as a RF audit device. A mobile application can run in the background which continuously audits the phone’s signal strength. Whenever the signal strength goes below a configured value, logs are generated at stored in the mobile phone’s internal memory. When the signal is strong again, these logs are pushed to the operator’s OSS/BSS infrastructure for post processing.

Some of the details which can be pushed in the logs can be:

– Latitude and Longitude when the signal went weak.

– Timestamp value when the signal went below the configured limit.

– Latitude and Longitude when the signal became normal again

– Timestamp value when the signal became normal

– Customer’s phone model and operating system details.

By using this solution, the operator can have the same effect as RF drive tests. Moreover, by using this technique the operator can also get information regarding the indoor coverage of the RF signal. The log details can be post processed at the OSS and plotted on a map to identify the problem areas with respect to RF coverage.


I discuss here an alternative architecture for RF audits that leverages an application installed on the end-device. This architecture also shows integration with the back-end OSS (NGOSS compliant system) to achieve automation of test results through well defined NGOSS TAM (Telecom Applications Map) software applications.

These TAM applications will be executed by business processes governed by the eTOM model.

The figure above shows the overall architecture needed to implement this architecture. Major touch points between the software application involved are shown in red circles. The explanation of each touchpoint is discussed in this section. Please note, that the architecture above only shows some of the standardized TAM applications which can be leveraged upon for implementing the proposed architecture. If more functionality is needed, more TAM applications may come into the picture.

The major touchpoints are as follows:

Point 1 – This is the interface between the software application on the smartphone and the OSS. This interface can be HTTP or SOAP/XML. The informational logs from the smartphone are fed to the Resource Performance Monitoring TAM application denoted by the TAM Application ID 7.9.1. This TAM application is responsible for performance data collection in near real-time. This application also co-relates events and filters them. Finally, data aggregation is also performed by this application so that it can be fed to the reporting system.

Point 2 – This interface is shared between the resource performance monitoring application and the resource performance analysis application. This application is responsible for performing the root cause analysis of performance degradation based on the information captured by the performance monitoring application. In our case, the degradation refers to the drop in the signal strength.

Point 3 – Based on the performance analysis, this application feeds the data to the performance reporting application where detailed reports are generated periodically and provided to the operator.  These reports can be generated automatically or even by manual intervention. e.g: If the operator wishes to generate a targeted RF report for the New Delhi Circle, a report will be generated on demand.

Point 4 – In case there is frequent degradation of the RF signal in a particular geography, the resource performance analysis application can raise a trouble ticket. The decision to raise a trouble ticket will be governed by a set of pre-configured rules in this application. These trouble tickets are handled by the Service problem reception, monitoring and analysis applications.

Point 5- In case there is a major network outage resulting in the loss of service for many subscribers, the resource performance analysis application can also raise a critical alarm to the Network Management Systems (NMS). These alarms may be escalated to the NoC (Network Operations Center). Based on the seriousness of the fault being reported, an alarm may be escalated to the Network Operations Center using this touch point.

Point 6 – This is the interface between the Resource performance reporting application and the Resource Design/Assign application. Based on the performance reports, there may be design changes required to the RF network. These change requests/enhancements are fed to the resource design application.

Point 7 – This touch point is between the service problem reception, monitoring and analysis applications which process the trouble ticket, perform the root cause analysis of the problem and decide upon the course of action to be taken to tackle the problem.

Point 8- The Service problem correction application is responsible for taking corrective action to the service problem (loss of RF coverage). Problem correction may be automated (configuring the base stations over the EMS), or it may be required to send a field technician to resolve the fault on-site.  This application may provide significant inputs to the Resource Design application to help avoid similar problems in the future.

What this Solution can’t provide:

1. Drive tests are also used for performing competitive analysis amongst operators. This cannot be achieved using this smartphone application technique.

2. This solution requires the end customer to carry a phone which supports installable applications. Hence, rudimentary phones will not be able to participate in this RF audit and a drive test will be necessary in case the bulk of the customer base carries plain phones.


With the advent of 3G/4G networks, smartphones are available in greater volumes. Hence, 2 yrs down the line they will be with more and more customers. Then this technique will really benefit the operators to drive down costs of RF audits.

Posted in airwaves, BSS, OSS, telecom | Tagged: , , , | 1 Comment »

USSD 2.0 Redux – 3GPP IMS Release-11 calls it USSI.

Posted by Aayush Bhatnagar on November 6, 2010


3GPP IMS Release-11 has an interesting work item under study. This work item is for Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD) simulation in IMS.

USSD based configuration and control of services are being used widely in GSM networks today.

However for LTE based 4G networks which will run on IMS, USSD based service configuration was missing in the standards. This has been mainly due to the presence of XCAP (XML Configuration Access Protocol) which provides user controlled service configuration.

However, there will be millions of customers who would still be using USSD for controlling their legacy services even when they move to 4G IMS. Customers might want a single mechanism to control and configure their legacy services as well as their new 4G services. Moreover, users are more accustomed to using USSD, and it will be nice to have it in 4G.

Due to these reasons, this work item is being developed and is under standardization at 3GPP.

This work item is still under study, and various options are being evaluated.

From their initial feedback, it seems that there will be no special standardization for USSD in LTE networks. It will not be reintroduced in its current form. 3GPP has noted that the current implementation of USSD in legacy networks is quite an overhead, and they will not like to re-implement it in LTE based IMS networks.

However, USSD is going to re-manifest itself in a new avtaar – USSI (USSD Simulation Service in IMS)

Yes, the new avtaar of USSD will probably be called USSI (from the work item notes). But it is still early days yet.

Implementation Options:

Several options are being evaluated which include the following:

— Re-using XCAP for USSD based control (by introducing new application usages for the XDM)

— Using SIP (new headers maybe)

— Tunneling USSD data in the SIP message body.

The whole idea behind USSI is not to re-invent the wheel by standardizing USSD from the scratch, but to only simulate it in IMS so as to provide a uniform experience to the user. Hence, it is called USSD Simulation Service (USSI).

Even though there are no concrete standards available for USSI, I would like to discuss some of the possible implementation options for it in this post:

Before we discuss the options, let is review what USSD is and how it works:

USSD services are triggered by the user, when he/she dials a special feature code appended by a “#” key. For example, in one Indian telco operator, if you dial *123#, then you get the prepaid balance on your mobile phone.

The USSD messages are routed by the MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) to the HLR which proxies it over MAP to a Service Node (called the USSD server). The USSD server responds to the request.

USSD works in two modes:

1. MMI Mode (Man Machine Interface Mode) initiatied by the UE

2. Application Mode initiated by the Network.

The MMI mode is like a “pull” mode where the user pulls data from the network using USSD

The Application mode is like a “push” mode, where the network pushes information to the registered UE using USSD.

With this basic background, let us discuss some of the possible implementation options for USSI in IMS networks:

1. Use XCAP and talk to the XDM:

This option at first seems to be the most natural fit for implementing USSI. This is so because in IMS, all service configuration for MMTEL, PoC and Presence are already standardized using XCAP. Hence, USSI can also be accommodated using this option.

However, this option has some pitfalls:

a. It completely changes the scalability requirements of the XDM server. The XCAP (Ut) interface is a peer to peer interface, and it will pose to be a problem for roaming scenarios in IMS. When the UE roams to another IMS network, there will need to be session border control on the XCAP interface similar to SIP. This would require extra standardization for this interface, and things can get a bit messy.

b. Services keep on changing: New application usages will need to be implemented for supporting USSI on XCAP. This would require standardization efforts. Moreover, it will be tricky to relate existing MMTEL application usages with USSI.

c. Using XCAP for USSI will only solve half the problem. Only MMI mode USSD can be implemented. Application mode (push mode) will still remain non-standardized.


This according to me is the best option available. The SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY exchange provides us with both pull mode and push mode operations. The description below is my personal suggestion and is not yet standardized in any 3GPP document.

The UE can SUBCRIBE to the “ussd” event package and receive the USSD menu in the NOTIFY message. This USSI operation can be implemented as a “poll” operation as standardized in RFC 3265.

When several USSD operations need to be performed, a dialog can be created between the UE and the USSI Application Server. For each USSI operation, a SUBSCRIBE refresh will be sent. For each successful operation a 200 OK will be sent. If the USSI server has no state to convey to the UE for a particular USSI operation, RFC 3265 provides the option for keeping the NOTIFY body empty. Otherwise, if the network needs to convey information to the UE, the NOTIFY message can contain a body.

For Application mode of operation in USSI, the USSI application server can send in-dialog NOTIFY messages to the UE.

Hence, all use cases for USSD are satisfied using this option.

Future Work:

In case there is head-way in USSI standardization, I will post updates here. For now, 3GPP is concentrating to standardize USSI for MMTEL services only and they intend to support only MMI mode. This comes to me as a surprise, as the application mode can lead to a lot of service innovations and should have been included in the work plan.

Posted in IMS, IMS Release 11, MMTEL, telecom, USSD, USSI | Tagged: , , , , , | 3 Comments »

IPTV service delivery architecture over IMS and possible applications.

Posted by Aayush Bhatnagar on October 18, 2010

A. Introduction:

For long, it has been envisioned that IPTV services can be delivered over the IMS core network.

TISPAN has done a good job in trying to standardize an architecture for this purpose. With IMS gaining traction globally, it is a good time to review the architecture for IPTV service delivery.

This post describes the architecture for delivering IPTV services over an IMS network. Traditional IPTV services include the following offerings:

1. Video on Demand – VoD

2. Broadcast Television-BCAST

3. Network Personal Video Recording – nPVR

To successfully provide IPTV services, we need an architecture to deliver these three basic services. On top of these services, we can use IMS service enablers to enrich the user experience such as Presence and Instant Messaging (IM).

Moreover, with IPTV over the IMS core we have an opportunity for providing video-interactive services for the first time.

As expected, any application server providing IPTV services will reside on the IMS services layer. This means that this application server will need to support the ISC reference point. (IMS Services Control).

As per the TISPAN architecture, we have the following major servers:

1. Service Discovery Function (SDF).

2. Service Selection Function (SSF).

3. Service Control Function (SCF).

4. Media Control Function (MCF).

5. Media Delivery Function (MDF).

6. User Profile Server Function (UPSF).

7. XML Document Management Server (XDMS).

In addition to these TISPAN entities we also have the following network entities which are required for an end to end deployment:

1. Streaming Servers for TV channels.

2. Head Ends for VoD.

3. AD Injection Servers

4. Content Management System (CMS).

5. Operation Support Subsystem (OSS)

6. Business Support Subsystem (BSS).


B. TISPAN Network Elements:

The network architecture for IPTV service delivery looks like the one shown below:

The Service Discovery Function provides attachment information to the UE and also the addresses of the Service Selection Functions. The SDF functions in two modes:

1. Push Mode, wherein the SDF receives the 3rd party REGISTER request from the S-CSCF and sends a MESSAGE request with the XML payload containing the attachment information.

2. Pull Mode, wherein the UE subscribes to the “ua-profile” event package and the service attachment information is sent in the XML payload of the NOTIFY request.

Based on the attachment information received from the SDF, the UE contacts the Service Selection Function (SSF). The SSF provides the UE with a list of services available. This can be done by providing the UE with the electronic program guide (EPG).

The Service Control Function is divided into three logical sub-functions – one for Broadcast television, another for content on demand and the third for personal video recording.

The SCF is responsible for IMS session control and acts as a SIP-AS. The SCF also generates charging information on DIAMETER protocol for charging these sessions. The SCF refers to the IPTV UE profile stored in the UPSF or in the XDMS for delivering video services.

The Media Control and Delivery functions act as a split architecture similar to the IMS MRFC-P. The MCF is the control plane entity while the MDF is the data plane entity responsible for streaming video. However, in practical deployments, there are dedicated streaming servers available and Head-ends for delivering IPTV content.

In addition to content, there are dedicated servers to inject advertisements in the video streams.

The UPSF is the Tispan counterpart of the HSS. It stores use profile data. The SCF and the SSF can both store the IPTV user profile in the UPSF over the Sh interface.

However, apart from the UPSF there is another storage alternative in the form of XDMS. The XDM operates over the XCAP/HTTP protocol. The XDMS needs to support the “org.etsi.ngn.iptv” application usage for this purpose.

The choice of user profile between the HSS and the XDMS is implementation dependent.

C. The Role of OSS and BSS:

Traditional IPTV middleware solutions consisted of an OSS/BSS along with the functionality defined above. After standardization directions in the OSS/BSS space, and with the advent of the NGOSS architecture, there is a technology neutral approach in the OSS/BSS space. Irrespective of the line of business – IPTV, voice or video, the OSS/BSS remains common.

Hence, legacy IPTV middleware has been broken into two components:

— The realtime components have been standardized by Tispan as described in the previous section.

— The non-realtime components such as OSS/BSS have merged with the NGOSS architecture.

OSS is required for inventory management of the STBs, provisioning of users, provisioning of IPTV services and content, service activation/deactivation and service assurance/SLA management. The Content for IPTV is stored in dedicated Content Management Systems (CMS). However, the content is provisioned from the OSS infrastructure.

BSS is required to carry out traditional billing, rating, mediation and charging responsibilities for the service provider. BSS is also used for partner management for 3rd party IPTV content, executing settlements with content partners as well as generating business intelligence reports.

D. Possible IPTV Applications using IMS:

1. Interactive voice/video: With IMS integration, it will be made possible for integrating voice/video capabilities in IMS. For example, Celebrities can be interviewed by the media without actually needing to travel with the crew to their residence. Using IPTV, the TV studio can directly initiate a video communication with the celebrity and take their interview which can then be broadcast to millions of fans.

2. Messaging: Instant Messaging over IMS can be used as another important application for IPTV…especially amongst teenagers. Instant Messaging can also be used as an avenue for televoting in LIVE programs on TV.

3. Nomadic IPTV: As IMS is access independent, the IPTV program guide can be made nomadic. The user can access their favorite TV programs even when they are on the move and when they are roaming.

4. Video Conference: This can be a very useful application for corporates/educational institutions engaged in distance learning and training. Students can join into an educational broadcast channel or a group discussion from their homes using their IPTV set top box.

5. Video/Photo Share with Web 2.0: Users can record and upload videos from their IPTV set top boxes directly to web based applications such as YouTube. Similarly, set top boxes can also be used for uploading photos to popular services such as Flickr.

6. Security Services: Set top boxes with cameras can be used as home surveillance equipment. A series of cameras can be connected to the STB over WiFi that cover the entire house and its compounds. These live video streams can be sent from the Set top box to the user’s mobile handset.

These applications can be made possible only with IMS integration. IMS helps in bringing voice/video and messaging services to IPTV in a standardized and seamless manner.

It will not be wrong to say that “video” is the next killer application and a replacement for voice !

It will be interesting to invite feedback from visitors/regular readers of this blog on their thoughts on the Tispan IPTV over IMS architecture.

Some questions that beg to be answered are:

— What are the hurdles for its widespread adoption?

— How important is the acceptance of 3GPP MBMS in the adoption of IPTV over IMS ?

— Will IPTV over IMS be a success only with LTE Advanced (where multicast is supported) ?

— What about the devices ?

— Will NGOSS act as an enabler for a smooth rollout of IPTV services? (No need for proprietary IPTV middleware).

Your feedback is appreciated and invited.

Posted in 3gpp, 3GPP TS 24.229, IMS, SDF, Services, SIP, SSF, telecom, TISPAN, UPSF | Tagged: , | 4 Comments »